August 2019 Raptor News

august raptor news 2019

Raptor Logo

If you’re a Raptor user with software maintenance, make sure to get the newly released update, Raptor 2019a2_2.0.  This version features key improvements, including:

  • GCM80: LIN Master Implementation, CAN queuing and XCP connection stability improvements
  • GCM70: Programming configurability improvements
  • GCM196: Output49, INPUT 31/32 updates
  • BCM48: CAN Transmit improvements
  • Displays: Initialization robustness enhancements, touchscreen button robustness improvements, display blocks interface fixes
  • J1939: added newly defined PGNs from standard
  • DBC-based CAN Message and Packing blocks bug fixes
  • Fault Manager feature additions and enhancements
  • Datasheet expansions and updates

Review the full release notes on our wiki, or download the Raptor-Test regression reports here. 

 

 

Raptor 2019a Webinar on August 23

Tune in at 2 p.m. EST on August 23, 2019 for our in-depth webinar on Raptor 2019a. Not only will you learn all about the latest Raptor update,  but you’ll also get a peek into what’s coming next to the Raptor Platform this year. 

raptor laptop

 

 


Introducing the VeeCAN 500

This dash-mountable, low-profile, 5-inch color display is the latest addition to the Raptor product line. Wrapped in a rugged, environmentally-sealed enclosure, it delivers a sleek, modern look while remaining easily programmable in the MATLAB/Simulink environment using Raptor-Dev. Get the specs on our wiki, or contact our sales team for information about how to purchase. 

veecan500 display

 

 


Raptor Training Sept 17

Get hands-on experience with Raptor during our three-day training course in Ann Arbor, Michigan on September 17-19, 2019. During this program, you’ll learn how to create real-world applications with Simulink and Raptor as you create models, build and program an ECU, and calibrate in real time with Raptor-Cal. 

raptor training

 

 

Get Hands-On Raptor Training In Septemeber

Raptor training cover image september

Join us for our popular Raptor Training program where participants will receive introductory training on our embedded model-based controls, Raptor platform. Participants will come out of this three-day course with hands-on experience with the Raptor-Dev and Raptor-Cal tools.

 

raptor training

Introductory Raptor Course

Tuesday, September 1 7  – Thursday, September 19, 2019

 New Eagle Headquarters in Ann Arbor, MI

 

 

If you can’t attend the September training session, reach out to our sales team to inquire about additional options customized to your needs. Also, be sure to subscribe to New Eagle’s Raptor newsletter to stay informed about Raptor toolkit’s tips and tricks, updates and future classes.  

What to Expect in Raptor Training

 

raptor training agenda

 

Attendees will use a throttle body controller project as an introductory guide to Raptor-Dev in the MATLAB/Simulink library. This will allow them to create a model intended for a target piece of hardware. Then, participants will use Raptor-CAL to flash the compiled software onto the hardware and make live calibratable adjustments on the flashed ECU.

On-Site, Customized Raptor Training Options

Can’t make it or prefer a more personalized training of New Eagle’s embedded model-based development tools? Our Raptor experts can travel to your team’s work facility for hands-on instruction catered to your needs.  

To learn more about these options and schedule a training at your location, email us at [email protected].  

We look forward to seeing you in class!

3 Myths About Rapid Prototyping Tools For Controls Development

model-based-development-workflow

Rapid prototyping tools allow quick iterations of control software code so we can learn what works and get the system functioning. Unfortunately, most rapid prototyping tools available today for system development fall into two categories:

  • The very expensive, highly capable options available to OEMs
  • The cheaper options meant for tinkering or hobbyists

Fortunately, there’s a third category: affordable, production-ready rapid prototyping tools that are easy-to-use.

Let’s look at three myths about rapid prototyping tools for the development and production of autonomous or EV/HEV vehicles.

Myth 1: Rapid Prototyping Tools Can’t Make Production Software

We’ve heard that rapid prototyping tools are great for innovation, but don’t have the capability to handle the detailed challenges and rigor of production system development.

Truth:

Rapid prototyping tools ARE great for innovation, because they let you iterate quickly, additionally, we’ve been enabling our customers to use those SAME tools for production for more than 15 years. New Eagle’s Raptor suite of tools is specifically designed for engineers developing systems and vehicles meant for mass production. Each Raptor software build automatically injects production-capable calibration management and data-collection capabilities to support production-oriented workflows and tools. Beyond that, Raptor has field-proven Fault Management & Diagnostics functionality engineered to allow application development targeting real-world emissions compliance standards such as CARB CCR 1968.2 (OBD-II) and CCR 1971.1 (OBD-HD).

Raptor Platform Overview

Myth 2: Rapid Prototyping Tools Can’t Handle Production Development Processes

We’ve heard engineers are more comfortable using legacy processes to achieve compliance with safety standards, because they are not sure how newer technologies map onto standards such as ISO 26262.

Truth:

Since its inception, ISO 26262 has provided a path to compliance using Model-Based development, providing ISO 26262-6 Annex B with guidelines. The revised ISO 26262 : 2018, which was recently released, provides enhanced guidance specifically for model-based development with code-generation and software safety analysis.

Raptor is built upon the MathWorks code generator for which MathWorks offers an IEC Certification Kit specifically for ISO 26262. Our production customers can engage our safety-certified engineers to prepare a plan tailored for their project.

 

model-based-development-workflow
Portions of this image are from the International Standard ISO 26262-6 Second Edition 2018-12

 

Myth 3: Automated Code Means Added Hardware Costs

Some engineers believe that rapid prototyping and code-generation are too inefficient to target cost optimized controllers for volume production. They think it will increase their overhead which would force a more expensive processor and more memory. They believe you must hand-tweak software code and use the cheapest possible controller.

Truth:

Machine-generated code does not add costs, and is more accurate than human-generated code. The repeatability of machine-generated code, combined with the optimizations it can perform, is often favorable to its human-generated counterpart.

Raptor is built on The MathWorks proven code-generation technology which has continued to improve in quality and efficiency over the past fifteen years and provides a cost-effective way to accelerate your vehicle development.

Most systems development projects we consult on (low to medium volume) involve conversations about the Nonrecurring Engineering Costs (NRE) because they factor heavily into the end system cost, particularly at these volumes. We advise our clients that it doesn’t make sense to spend extra budget on engineering just to shave a few dollars off the controller price.

Production-Ready Rapid Prototyping Tools In Action:

A great example of our production-ready rapid prototyping tools in action is our work on the Walmart WAVE.

Walmart wanted to build a vehicle with an alternative-fuel powertrain for cleaner shipping. The concept involved an advanced on-highway hybrid Class 8 truck that would one day become the Walmart Advanced Vehicle Experience (WAVE).

Walmart enlisted our team to help develop the complicated control software and electric powertrain architecture. We quickly created a working system and built a custom interface into the WAVE’s microturbine controller, which facilitated the proprietary protocol over a serial interface.

In the end, our rapid development tools allowed Walmart to meet its timeline goals and showcase how green technology can be leveraged on-highway for cleaner shipping.

From Concept to Production, Faster

As the EV/HEV and autonomous markets mature, development tools will continue to evolve. Now you know that there are rapid prototyping tools that can stand up to the demands of production system development.

Remember, the right tools can help you with developing, designing, testing and validating your system so you can reduce risk and cost and get to production that much faster.

June 2019 Raptor News

raptor 2019a

With summer, comes the biggest update to the Raptor platform of 2019–Raptor 2019a. Plus, get up-to-date on the latest articles, products, and training opportunities designed to help you take control of your project and overcome mechatronic control system challenges.

Raptor 2019a 

Raptor 2019a brings notable updates to the Raptor-Dev, Raptor-Cal and Raptor Test tools.  Check out the release notes on our wiki, or skim what’s new below:

Raptor-Dev 2019a

View our Raptor-Test regression reports for the Raptor-Dev 2019a_1.0 release here.

  • BCM48: CAN queue improvements, EEPROM driver enhancements, added Duty Cycle measurements for frequency inputs
  • GCM/ECM196: enhanced Application Monitor functionality, added redundant EEPROM capability, CAN2/3 robustness fixes, added J1939 support
  • GCM80: CAN queue improvements, CAN messaging fixes, added J1939 support
  • Displays: Updated default EEPROM storage logic, startup display improvements
  • Enhanced support for third-party calibration tools
  • Fault Manager enhancements
  • Improvements to the DBC CAN message blocks
Raptor-Cal 2019a
  • Transfer-Cals improvements
  • Stripchart autoscaling
  • Additional settings for compatibility with J1939
  • Resolved issues with Fault Manager support for Motohawk ECUs
  • Stability and performance enhancements
Raptor-CAN 2019a
  • Support for multi-bus simulation
  • Floating-point simulation precision fixes
  • Gateway function tool will now pass through new messages after initialization
  • Installer robustness improvements
  • Licensing updates
Raptor-Test 2019a
  • Improved initial ECU connection time
  • Added support for GCM70 and GCM80
  • Added additional script actions (Reflash, VerifyRunningSoftware, CANChannelUpdate)
  • Fixed enum variable handling
  • Custom plugin interface enhancements
  • Improved RPG file version migration
  • Licensing updates

Raptor Logo

Regression Testing

Inside every new Raptor-Dev release announcement, there’s a link to download the Raptor-Test regression reports that outline all individual regression tests ran on the software, noting whether or not those tests passed. If you’ve ever wondered what regression testing is–let alone, why it’s both useful and necessary for programs–read this helpful article to learn all about it.

 

test-summary-laptop

Telematics Gateway Unit 

This telematics gateway unit is summer 2019’s newest addition to Raptor Telematics product line, manufactured by a global leader in telematics manufacturing. This unit meets automotive quality standards, approved by major US and European OEMs, heavy-duty vehicle manufactures, and agricultural implement suppliers–a capability not found in most rugged embedded controllers! 

To learn more about this new hardware,  contact our sales team or click the button below.

 

telematics gateway unit
Don’t Miss Raptor Training on September 17-19, 2019

Registration for the fall Raptor Training Course is now open! Build your skills with this hands-on, in-depth course, taught by New Eagle’s Raptor experts. Sign up now to save your seat, or contact our team for more information.

 

 

raptor training

 

Be among the first to know about the latest Raptor updates, upcoming events and training opportunities, plus get exclusive Raptor tips by subscribing to our mailing list. For more great ways to stay up-to-date with New Eagle, connect with us on social. 

What is Regression Testing and Why is it Necessary?

regression testing with raptor test

Have you noticed that, inside every new Raptor-Dev release announcement, there’s a link to download the Raptor-Test regression reports? In that download, we outline information for all of the individual regression tests run on software and whether or not those tests have passed. But what exactly is regression testing, and why is it necessary? Before you break out your old stats notebook to find out, know that regression tests have nothing to do with variable correlation–you’re thinking regression analysis.

test-summary-laptop

What is Regression Testing?

Throughout the software development life cycle, engineers create a suite of test cases to validate software against the associated test case prior to developing additional features. However, software development isn’t always linear. As software developers generate code, functions are added to enhance functionality or to respond to requirement changes. Not to mention, revisions are often necessary due to obligatory bug corrections or performance issues. Through this continuous evolution and expansion of software, it’s necessary to retest and confirm that new code doesn’t alter the existing functionality of the system. To do so, engineers will frequently run the previous test cases to prevent software modification from having adverse effects on existing code. This is referred to as regression testing.

 

Universal Regression Rig (URR)

 

Think of the word regression in terms of its meaning “the act of going back to a previous place or state.” It tests the software backwards, making sure new functions don’t break existing performance.

The Universal Regression Rig

Over the years at New Eagle, we focused on improving the regression testing method. Through this development, we built a Universal Regression Rig (U.R.R) to test software packages generated in Raptor-Dev on our Raptor based ECUs. When first developing this system, we concentrated on

  • Replacing our existing test boards with a more robust and repeatable system
  • Upgrading our testing procedures using a selection of advanced hardware
  • Organizing and consolidating our testing hardware
  • Streamlining our testing process to save time and improve the quality of our software systems

 

Universal Regression Rig Cover 

Built with aerospace-grade testing hardware, this rig is capable of complete I/O testing on up to eight Raptor ECUs. It also handles most (soon to be all) of the hardware circuit types supported by the various Raptor ECUs. Designed to ensure that if something doesn’t pass, the U.R.R. runs tests automatically so that our engineers can address the software rather than manually debug the rig itself.

Why Regression Testing is Necessary

Now that you know what regression testing is and how it’s done, let’s talk about why it’s necessary. Regression testing is a part of all software development and maintenance. If a team fails to validate the functionality of the source code prior to release, errors can occur. The result of those errors can cause negative effects on those using the system. This is why it’s necessary.

However, disadvantages of regression testing do exist. It can become incredibly extensive depending on the complexity of the software. Why? Test cases are continuously added as software progresses. With both developing and running a hefty suite of test cases, regression testing becomes time consuming, expensive, and requires an advanced set of resources. In fact, much of a project’s budget and resource allocation is often set aside for regression testing.

Regression Testing Techniques

To offset the above issues, there are techniques to mitigate the time and cost associated with regression testing. To start with, try these three main techniques: Retest All, Regression Test Selection, Test Case Prioritization.

Regression Testing

Going back to our improvements on regression testing, we first test critical systems, followed by functional systems, and, finally, non-functional systems. This allows us to monitor software change modifications. If a program requires, we can execute performance testing. This test tracks the quality of the output by testing the system and monitoring the feedback response. As a whole, this entire process confirms that the system performs to customer expectations. It also measures the outcome in regards to user experience. For instance, in our drive-by-wire (DBW) system, we run tests to validate system command sends to turn the steering wheel. The wheel both turns the proper amount, indicating proper functionality and smooth turns, creating an enjoyable driving experience for passengers.

Testing Raptor Releases

When applying regression tests to Raptor, we run them against each internal build of Raptor-Dev with our Continuous Integration (CI) server. Our engineers integrate source code into our shared repository. From here, the CI server monitors our source code after each check-in. This automatically builds and tests the product to identify any potential errors. If an error occurs, the server alerts our team of the regression. The alert allows them to detect and correct problems early on. With this automation, we receive the added benefit of accelerated software releases.

The Three Stages of Regression Testing

We continue testing on every version of our Raptor Software Tools by pushing them through the three stages of regression testing. These three stages are software-only, processor-in-the-loop, and hardware tests.

Software-only tests ensure that each model previously built will continue to build. Every potential software release is tested across every possible Matlab Version currently supported by Raptor-Dev. These tests determine if the software is functioning correctly and identifies if any platform specific issues arise. Our engineers use software-only testing to guarantee that the new Raptor-Dev release will function for all customers across all supported platforms.

Processor-in-the-loop testing assures that each software version runs properly on the intended hardware. Raptor-Test scripts run against the hardware integrated with the new software release to validate whether all major functions work properly. This stage tests major features, such as interpolation tables, fault manager, and the J1939 protocol library.

Hardware tests, performed on our U.R.R., establish whether the hardware inputs and outputs function through all possible scenarios according to customer specifications with the new build of Raptor-Dev. Once a software package is flashed onto an ECU, the test module interfaces with a coordinator module. Then, test scripts are run to transmit and receive sensor and actuation signals between the two modules. Signals, such as analog inputs, are then rendered to the target hardware and become verified. Lastly, the coordinator hardware receives the test outputs to determine proper functionality for actuation signals. These signals include PWM and digital outputs (I/O).

Building Validation with Raptor-Test

Raptor-Test is a powerful software tool that, in conjunction with a test bench setup, facilitates testing of model-based software against a system’s requirements through simulated hardware-in-the-loop (SimHIL). SimHIL testing is a control systems validation strategy. It uses simulated I/O to verify that the software functions match the application requirements. By using a graphical PC interface, users quickly create and execute a test script over a USB-to-CAN interface, automating a once error-prone, manual testing process.

Raptor-Test configuration can vary with the application’s testing requirements. Some applications only require a PC to run Raptor-Test, a Kvaser cable for CAN-to-USB connection, and the ECU under test. For more complex applications, Raptor-Test can interface with both a Test Module and a Coordinator Module (which typically runs a plant model), transmitting and receiving simulated sensor and actuation signals between the two modules.

Raptor-Test

Building a validation test plan with Raptor-Test uses automation to reliably and repeatedly test your software changes. Ultimately, this improvement gives you greater confidence in your software, putting you on the path to production.

Develop Your Solution with the Intended Results

Software modifications occur throughout the development cycle, and regression testing is often tedious and overwhelming. However, it’s vital for ensuring your end product functions as intended. If you’re looking to develop a program that requires efficient and affordable regression testing prior to your solution’s release, contact New Eagle.

 

What to Expect from Raptor™ 2019a

raptor 2019a release

Coming this week, our Raptor™ dev team will publish the Release Notes for the next major Raptor™ release, Raptor 2019a. See below for what improvements have been made. Plus, get the recap from the MathWorks Automotive Conference, learn more about upcoming Raptor training opportunities, and find out great ways to stay up-to-date with New Eagle events and the latest Raptor enhancements.

What’s New with Raptor 2019a

Raptor 2019a brings key improvements to Raptor-Dev, Raptor-Cal, Raptor-CAN, and Raptor-Test. Here’s what to expect: 

Raptor-Dev 2019a
  • BCM48: CAN queue improvements, EEPROM driver enhancements, added Duty Cycle measurements for frequency inputs
  • GCM/ECM196: enhanced Application Monitor functionality, added redundant EEPROM capability, CAN2/3 robustness fixes, added J1939 support
  • GCM80: CAN queue improvements, CAN messaging fixes, added J1939 support
  • Displays: Updated default EEPROM storage logic, startup display improvements
  • Enhanced support for third-party calibration tools
  • Fault Manager enhancements
  • Improvements to the DBC CAN message blocks

View our Raptor-Test regression reports for the Raptor-Dev 2019a_1.0 release here.

Raptor-Cal 2019a
  • Transfer-Cals improvements
  • Stripchart autoscaling
  • Additional settings for compatibility with J1939
  • Resolved issues with Fault Manager support for Motohawk ECUs
  • Stability and performance enhancements
Raptor-CAN 2019a
  • Support for multi-bus simulation
  • Floating-point simulation precision fixes
  • Gateway function tool will now pass through new messages after initialization
  • Installer robustness improvements
  • Licensing updates
Raptor-Test 2019a
  • Improved initial ECU connection time
  • Added support for GCM70 and GCM80
  • Added additional script actions (Reflash, VerifyRunningSoftware, CANChannelUpdate)
  • Fixed enum variable handling
  • Custom plugin interface enhancements
  • Improved RPG file version migration
  • Licensing updates

Note: To access the latest updates, you’ll need to have a maintenance plan that’s up-to-date. Get started with purchasing a maintenance plan by selecting the button below.

MathWorks Automotive Conference Recap

At the end of April 2019, New Eagle made its debut appearance as an exhibitor at the MathWorks Automotive Conference in Plymouth, Michigan. There, we shared information about embedded model-based development with Raptor™, an official MathWorks Partner product, while demonstrating our latest Raptor autonomous control solution, our drive-by-wire kit for the Chrysler Pacifica.

mathworks conference picture

You can see the drive-by-wire kit in-action on our YouTube channel and check out photos from the Mathworks Automotive Conference on Instagram.

Get Trained on Raptor

For new Raptor users, Raptor Training is one of the best ways to learn the fundamentals of embedded model-based development using the platform.

In this three-day, hands-on course, attendees create real-world applications using Matlab/Simulink and Raptor™, crafting models with Raptor-Dev, generating code, programming an ECU, and calibrating in real time.

This program is ideal for control system, application, and embedded software engineers, as well as technical program managers.

To register for the next session on September 17-19, 2019, click the button below.

Import Custom Source Code into Raptor Builds

power user tip blog cover

Have you ever wondered if you can import your own custom or legacy source code (*.c/*h files) into a Raptor build?

If you are current with Raptor, the answer is yes!

With Raptor 2018b, you can now  include code from the “slprj” directory. When Simulink generates shared utility code, it is placed in that directory.

How to Import Custom Source Code

There are a couple different ways to import custom source code, but the easiest is by creating a  directory named “Source” in the same directory as the model.

simulink shared utility

How to Call Custom Code

There are two key methods to call custom code while the Raptor ECU is running. The first is by using the Simulink Coder’s “Custom Code” blocks. The second is by writing an S-Function. Here is how to navigate both methods.

METHOD 1: Using Simulink Coder’s “Custom Code” Blocks

Begin by locating the “System Outputs” block. This will generate code specified in the block in the trigger where it is located.

custom code blocks

While this will allow you to call custom code, it does not provide ports. If the function you’re using requires an input or provides outputs, try the next method–writing an S-Function.

METHOD 2: Writing an S-Function

For functions involving ports, writing an  S-Function is a great way to navigate calling custom code. You can learn how to do this by reading the documentation on MathWorks website.

mathworks s funciton documentation screenshot

Stay Current with Raptor

Raptor 2019a will  improve integration with Simulink and its many methods for integrating custom code, including support for:

  1.    Custom Code pane in the Configuration parameters
  2.    MATLAB Functions
  3.    Simulink Functions/Function Callers

To ensure you have access to the upcoming Raptor 2019a update, your software maintenance plan will need to be current. If it is not already,  you can purchase maintenance or update your plan by contacting our team.

Want to be among the first to know about Raptor Releases?

Subscribe to Raptor News. You’ll get notifications about the latest updates, plus exclusive tips to help you get the most out of the Raptor platform.

New Eagle to Exhibit at MathWorks Automotive Conference

mathworks conference

Join New Eagle on April 30, 2019 at the MathWorks Automotive Conference in Plymouth, Michigan. While there, connect with automotive industry leaders to learn about the latest tools, applications and advancements enabled by MATLAB/Simulink.

mathworks automotive conference

Connect with New Eagle at the MathWorks Automotive Conference

Be sure to connect with us at our booth for the opportunity to speak with Ben Hoffman, Director of Raptor Platform, about Raptor, our MathWorks partner product.

Ben will provide in-depth details about how this embedded model-based development platform is expediting technologies’ time-to-market through fast, efficient, and reliable production control solutions. Plus, experience  in-action demos of our Raptor-enabled drive-by-wire Chrysler Pacifica.

Registration for the 2019 conference is free, but required. Sign up on MathWorks’ website or by clicking the button below. 

Conference Details

The 2019 event is held from 8 a.m.- 5 p.m. at the Inn at St. Johns (44045 Five Mile Road, Plymouth, MI 48170). For more information, visit MathWorks’s website.

How the ISO 26262: 2018 Update Affects You

ISO 26262 2018 update

At the end of 2018, the long-awaited update to the ISO 26262 standard was finalized and published. This new version expands the scope of the original 2011 publication to incorporate additional safety measurements and industry segments beyond the original passenger vehicle applications. With this expansion, many of our customers are coming to us with the same questions: Does this updated standard apply to my project and how do I incorporate it into my development process?

Does the ISO 26262 Apply to Your Project?

Although the ISO 26262 standard can seem complex and overwhelming, we can guide you in the right direction and help you to answer the important questions. With our team of Automotive Functional Safety Engineers (AFSEs), we will show you a path to production that incorporates the necessary safety standards that are required for today’s various industries. We will assist your company in clarifying whether the updated ISO 26262 standard applies to your project, conduct a risk assessment of your product and development cycle, provide you with ISO capable hardware, and teach you how to incorporate the required development processes necessary to achieve the safety standard.

What is ISO 26262?

ISO 26262 is an international standard for road vehicles that provides a framework for functional safety throughout the progression of electrical and electronic (E/E) systems development. While some requirements are product specific, others focus on the safety regulations throughout the development lifecycle. These standards demonstrate how companies should integrate functional safety into their development process, providing regulations and recommendations on how to achieve appropriate functional safety measures. To put it simply, this is a common standard that measures and verifies the safety of a system before it is put into service.

ISO 26262 uses a system of steps to provide companies with a way to manage the functional safety and regulate product development on the system, hardware, and software from conceptual development through decommissioning. The steps include administering an automotive risk-based approach to determine the risk classes of a system, called Automotive Safety Integrity Levels (ASILs). It also includes practices that validate and confirm that a vehicle sufficiently reaches an acceptable level of safety.

What Revisions Were Made to ISO 26262 In 2018?

The 2018 revision to the ISO 26262 standard, titled “Road Vehicles – Functional Safety, includes industry feedback and updates based on advances in technology since the standard was originally published. The standard was reconstructed to provide more detailed objectives and extensions to the overall vocabulary. Additions to the ISO standard include:

  • Objective oriented confirmation measures
  • Management of safety anomalies
  • References to cyber-security
  • Updated target values for hardware architecture metrics
  • Evaluation of hardware elements
  • Additional guidance on dependent failure analysis
  • Guidance on fault tolerance, safety-related special characteristics, and software tools.
  • Guidance for model-based development and software safety analysis

In addition, two completely new standards were added to the document: ISO 26262-11 for Semiconductors and ISO 2626-12 for Motorcycles.

The main addition that is concerning our customers is the revision that increases the scope of the standard beyond light-duty, automotive passenger applications to include trucks, buses, trailers, semitrailers, and motorcycles.

How and When Does ISO 26262 Apply to Your Project?

Firstly, let’s address when your system is not required to abide by the newly released ISO 26262 standard. Unique E/E systems in special vehicles are exempt from the standard, including:

  • Mopeds
  • Prototypes
  • Systems designed for drivers with disabilities
  • Systems and any components released for production prior to the publication date
  • Systems and any components under development during the publication date

The standard is intended to be applied to safety-related E/E systems in production road vehicles, which are any vehicle used by or used among the general public. As stated above, this now incorporates trucks, buses, trailers, semitrailers, and motorcycles. In addition, if you are conducting alterations to an existing system that was released for production prior to the publication date, then it falls within the scope of the updated standard.

What Does an ASIL Requirement Mean and How is it Determined?

In order to understand what ASIL requirements are, we must first look at Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessments (HARA). HARAs are used to identify and classify hazardous events caused by malfunctioning behaviors within the system. Each hazard is assessed based on the relative effect the hazardous incident could have on the overall E/E system and is dependent on the probability of the hazard actually manifesting. The assessment also takes into account the severity of potential bodily injuries that could be attained by the driver or other passengers within the relative amount of time the vehicle is exposed to the hazard, as well as the probability of whether a typical driver could prevent injury from occurring. Once all the hazards are assessed, the HARA process creates safety goals to prevent or reduce each hazard, assigning each safety goal an Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL).

ASILs are an automotive specific, risk-based approach that determine the risk classes and integrity levels of each safety goal. They also determine if the safety goals abide by the ISO safety standard. The determination of the ASIL is a function of three variables: exposure, severity, and controllability.

Exposure – how often does the operational situation occur?

ASIL-class

Severity – how severe is the potential harm?

ASIL-severity

Controllability – are the occupants, or operator, able to take control to mitigate any potential injuries?

ASIL-controllability

Since the ISO 26262 standard was originally published in 2011, industry experience and practice in this area has formalized into “SAE J2980 – Considerations for ISO 26262 ASIL Hazard Classification.” This document provides guidelines as to what each level means in a typical scenario. For example, controllability class C2 ‘Normally controllable’ would be true if 90% or more of all drivers are usually able to take control and avoid the specified harm. The guidelines can act as a rule-of-thumb in cases that require a judgement call.

Once these three items are established for each safety goal, the ASIL can be determined using the chart below.

ASIL-qualitymanaged-chart

While a “quality managed” (QM) rating signifies that the safety goal is not severe enough to require specific regulations through the standard, those that are will be given a rating of ASIL A through ASIL D depending on the severity.

The determined ASILs will be further refined into Functional Safety Requirements (FSRs), incorporating these same ASIL designations. At some point throughout the development process, the requirements will be allocated to units (e.g. ECUs) for implementation.

The Cost of ASIL Compliance

The cost and complexity of compliance may increase by as much as an order of magnitude with each step, ranging throughout ASIL A to ASIL D. While ASIL A may have small limited effects on the development process, it is assumed that safety goals with an ASIL D rating have significant cost and timing effects for a program.

For example, to plan, execute, verify, and document compliance, the following effort multipliers could be considered:

Functional System : 1
ASIL A : 1.5x – 3x
ASIL B : 2x – 4x
ASIL C : 5x – 8x
ASIL D : 10x+

These multipliers depend heavily on current process maturity, system design, and system requirements. Specific requirements and obligatory work items for software, hardware, and tools are provided within the safety standard.

How Can ASIL Decomposition Save Time and Money?

ISO 26262:9 describes ASIL-oriented and safety-oriented analyses. One of which is ASIL Decomposition, whereby ASIL safety levels and requirements are decomposed over redundant and sufficiently independent elements within your design. As higher ASILs typically require higher costs, decomposition can help to meet safety requirements with reduced cost and effort.

Decomposing the different ASIL levels typically follows a predefined pattern, often occurring over multiple ASIL levels since the ISO standard allows for multilevel decomposition. The figure below shows an example of the decomposition of an ASIL D using three different approaches.

Decomposition of the different ASIL ratings throughout the system can occur over different elements, working down through the system, subsystems, software, and hardware. ASIL decomposition is typically performed manually and must result in redundant safety requirements allocated to design elements of sufficient technical independence. Here at New Eagle, we have certified staff and experience with ASIL tailoring, such as ASIL Decomposition, which may be applied within your project to save cost and time.

Path to Production

Based on your ASIL allocations after decomposition, you need to select an ECU to be utilized in your design that will best meet the requirements defined by the ISO 26262 standard. For each ASIL, you will likely have a list of required diagnostic coverage mechanisms. In a typical safety design, for example, processors integrate a self-checking safety monitor. Additionally, intended hardware typically includes pre-established safety features, such as error correcting code (ECC) and a programmable watchdog timer, to help detect system failures and runtime faults. A modern central processing unit (CPU) will utilize a multicore architecture with a hardware lock-step safety mechanism, which can significantly reduce complexity while improving reliability and availability. These modern architectures include built-in self-test and optimization to prevent common cause failures.

Using an off-the-shelf component in a safety design requires that the component be capable of executing the necessary functions, compatible with your system design, and well documented. Typically, the component would be documented as a Safety Element out of Context (SEooC). It’s important to understand which subcomponents in the ECU can be defined as a safety-critical dependent for an application, as these elements may be used in your safety design. Diagnostic coverage mechanisms must be in place and able to detect dangerous failures within these components in order for them to be used in a safety function. These assumptions should be documented by the ECU vendor within a Safety Manual, and must be taken into account. They provide constraints on the applicability of an off-the-shelf part for any given design.

Here at New Eagle, we have several Raptor™ hardware design options available for production projects that require ISO 26262. These safety capable ECUs target ASIL B – ASIL D, and include a range of I/O and communication interfaces.

electronic control module

  • GCM196 / ECM196 –This ASIL B capable hardware design is built on the standard automotive e-gas monitoring concept commonly used for powertrain control. Depending on the results of ASIL Decomposition, this is an excellent option for multiple safety goals with various ASIL ratings. This control module has three CAN buses, one LIN bus, and a large variety of I/O.
  • C48 – This powerful general-purpose control module is perfect for applications that require advanced performance, timing systems, and functional safety capabilities. The CPU is a high-performance multi-core architecture that can support the highest level of functional safety (ASIL-D).
  • GCM121 – This ASIL C capable, general-purpose control module is perfect for applications that require advanced performance, timing systems, and functional safety capabilities. It has a broad communication capacity with its four CAN buses, two LIN buses, and one Ethernet bus.
  • C112 – This powerful general-purpose control module is perfect for applications that require advanced performance and heavy communication requirements due to its four CAN buses, two LIN buses, and Ethernet capabilities. The CPU is a high-performance multi-core architecture that can support the highest level of functional safety (ASIL-D).

These examples illustrate a range of design options, which can be matched with your system requirements to create a solution compatible with your needs. All ISO 26262 production projects require safety planning and implementation assistance from our Functional Safety Certified staff. Please contact our sales team to discuss our available options.

Important Safety Standard Considerations

It is important to consider ISO 26262 safety standards when developing electronic systems, especially since this standard now incorporates a variety of road vehicle applications. Failing to do so and potentially overlooking possible vehicle malfunctions during the development process could result in liability issues for the manufacturer down the road.

For those companies that are unfamiliar with ISO 26262, seeking consultation from our AFSEs will help you to incorporate the safety standard into your development. Our engineering expertise and line of rugged, ISO 26262 capable hardware design options will help you build an efficient path to production.

April 2019 2Q News: EV and HEV Products

april 2019 news

April has arrived, bringing New Eagle into 2019’s second quarter. With it, comes more robust ways to take control of your machine while managing development timelines and cost.

If you’re planning to start an EV/HEV solution, learn about our

to help get you started.

EV and HEV Products

Great new products join the Raptor family, making it faster, easier and more reliable than ever for you to take your EV/HEV machines on a path from concept to production. Here are a few of our favorite additions:

  • GCM80 joins the Raptor product line as an eVCU offering high-volume ECU with 4 CAN, LIN and seamless integration with Raptor’s development tools and process.
  • HV Heater & A/C options for 400V EV systems from Mitsubishi are production-validated automotive units ideal for EV/HEV projects.
  • Axial Flux Motors from Magelec are permanent magnet motors improving EV efficiency while offering flexible design options.
  • RMS/BorgWarner Next Generation Inverters are designed for volume OEM and heavy equipment EV and HEV applications.

Get details on these and more EV and HEV product options for your on and off-road machines by visiting our Product Wiki.

Starting an EV/HEV Project?

If you’re beginning an electric drivetrain project, request New Eagle’s Feasibility Guide. Created by safety-certified engineers, its valuable insights help navigate this “phase zero” stage of development so your project gets on the best path to production. 

New Eagle Electric Vehicle feasibility guideIdentifying a Production ECU Supplier

For developers navigating the early stages of machine development, selecting a production ECU supplier is one of the most important decisions to make in the process. Unfortunately, it’s not an easy one. Find out what you should ask and look for before selecting a supplier for your project.

new eagle production ecu supplier

May 2019 Raptor Training

Our popular Raptor Training program returns to New Eagle’s Headquarters in Ann Arbor, Michigan on May 7-9, 2019.

In this three day class, attendees will build on the fundamentals of embedded model-based design using the Raptor platforms Raptor-Dev and Raptor-Cal, while applying controls, embedded systems and MATLAB Simulink/Stateflow knowledge.

Space is limited, so register before it runs out!

 

 

Featured Application: Electric Rock Crusher

Our application engineering team leveraged Raptor™ to electrify Kolberg-Pioneer’s industrial rock crusher, creating a solution Kolberg-Pioneer hopes to scale to a new generation of electric-power machines. Read how in this case study.kolberg pioneer gt440 electric rock crusher

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